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Old Articles (Modern Technologies)

(From latest November-December 2005 issue backwards up to January-February 2002 issue)

NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2005

WIFI and WiMAX Take off

The recent introduction of Broadband services has enthused the customers to that extent that now there is a demand for wireless access for broadband. Wireless Broadband Service provisioning has been defined by Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) under different categories. WiFi is the Standard that is enabling access to internet/broadband on wireless environment in a short range and WiMax Standard is for mobile internet access for long range of 10 to 40 Km. This article describes various standards prescribed for WiFi and WiMax and the characteristics. The advantages and other facilities offered are also dealt with. The tremendous potential of WiMax standard in delivering wireless access for various services like data at high speed, GSM backhaul and enterprise services to the high-end corporate customers is expected to bring in a new communication revolution in the years to come.

A.Ganesan

Dy.General Manager BSNL, STR, Chennai

 

Wireless LAN Implementation

In recent year, there has been a spurt in the data traffic considerably. In fact, the data traffic in many countries has taken over the voice traffic. More countries are set to follow the trend. Internet had primarily played the catalytic role for the high growth of data traffic. Omnipresence of Internet and its cost effectiveness has been the driving force for the explosive growth of data based services. Wireless technologies are developing at a faster rate and WiFi and WiMax services are on the envil including Wireless LAN in access network. This article presents an overview of Wireless LAN implementation.

 

Ambrish Agrawal

Ex. GM T&D Circle & Telecom Consultant

& Mehul Rao

M.Sc (NT&M) AMITY University

 

Optical Evolution MPLS-Overview

Today’s communication networks and services are migrating to a converged paradigm centered on IP (Internet Protocol). MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) has emerged as a key enabling technology for this migration. MPLS technology has proven its value for delivering new services while at the same time allowing migration from old to new networks. The requirement of multi-vendor, multi-technology control plane interoperability among major networking equipment vendors, and the service providers real world requirements open up opportunities towards operational readiness of MPLS/G MPLS for end-to-end connection management and the creation of differentiated service offerings. This has evolved into the scope of common control plane for IP and optical layers thus leading the way to next generation networks. This article presents an overview of optical MPLS evolution paving the way for next generation networks.

 

V.S.V.Prasad

AGM (Engg & IT) T&D Circle, Jabalpur

 

High Speed Downlink Packet Access

As per release 5 of the third Generation Project (3GPP) W-CDMA specification, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an enhancement for higher throughout and better spectrum efficiency on the downlink. It is also backward compatible with WCDMA. This article presents an overview of HSDPA.

Neeraj Pandey

Dy. CSTE (Signals), West Central Railway, Jabalpur

 

Multiple Access Technologies for Next Generation Mobile Networks

 

With the substantial increase of Internet users and with the development of new services, high-speed access in the future generations of wireless systems is an important requirement. Consequently, broadband systems with bandwidths much wider than that of the 3-Generation (3G) systems are required for meeting future requirements. In this article, some fundamental technical concepts of the main multiple access schemes for wireless mobile systems are reviewed, and a path for the development for appropriate multiple access technologies for next-generation mobile networks, or so-called beyond 3G (B3G), is established. It starts with a review of the multiple access technologies in second and third-generation wireless cellular systems from historical and technical points of view, then listing the most important features of multiple access schemes in 3G mobile systems, and finally, concluding the article by reviewing the most promising multiple access technologies for B3G mobile cellular systems.

 

Rajesh Khanna

Assistant Professor, Thapar Institute of Engg. & Tech. Patiala

&

Balwant Singh

Lecturer, Thapar Institute of Engg. & Tech. Patiala

 

Bluetooth Wireless Technology

 

Bluetooth is the first popular technology for short-range, and ad-hoc networking that is designed for an integrated voice and data applications. This article provides the limpid overview of Bluetooth working, networking aspects and its operational states. A description on Bluetooth hardware modules has been presented innovatively in a categorized manner. In addition, Bluetooth protocol stack and Bluetooth profiles have also been discussed briefly. Finally, due considerations have been presented on Bluetooth security vulnerabilities and interference issues with Wi-Fi.

 

Jivesh Govil

IVth year student, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (DU)

 

Broadband Access Technologies

 

There is always increasing demand for higher capacity systems and more bandwidth for new generation, hence new various types of access technologies for broadband have to be found for this exponential growth. Broadband service commonly is high speed internet related services more than 256 kbps to several mbps. There are many different broadband technologies both wired and wireless. BSNL’s broadband service working under the brand name “DataOne” and MTNL’s brand name under “Triband”. This article describes various types of broadband access technologies and BSNL’s access network of broadband.

 

M.T.Kolate

SDE BSNL, Jalgaon

SEPTEMBER – OCTOBER 2005

 

Wi-Fi Public Access System

 

Wi-Fi as a technology has created lot of buzz as evidenced from the increasing number of hot-spots around the world. Besides providing enterprise solutions, the technology can be deployed by Internet service providers in innovative ways. This article describes how Wi-Fi can be used to create a niche market segment in wireless broadband. It also provides implementation details of such initiative for Network Service Providers. While such services, are in nascent stage, they have the potential to acquire significant importance for service providers and wireless Broadband customers alike in near future.

 

A.K.Bhargava

General Manager (IT) MTNL New Delhi

 

CDR Based convergent Billing system

 

Telecom Bills are an essential part of any Telco. A service provider can multiply the returns and minimize the customer grievances by adopting modern billing practices which enable quick settlement of disputes. Implementation of CDR based Convergent Billing system will be a step in that direction which will help BSNL to provide quality billing and customer care service.

 

V.K.Mahendra

Sr.DDG(IT) BSNL HQ, New Delhi

 

IP Multimedia subsystem

 

IP Multimedia Services is an evolution for all converged networks. The convergence will not be confined to data and voice but also to the wireless and wireline networks, ushering in an era of unified network architecture running on IP protocol. This article presents an overview of IP Multimedia Subsystem.

 

Neeraj Pandey

Dy. CSTE (Signals), West Central Railway, Jabalpur

 

RAID Organization

 

This article is an attempt to describe the RAID organization and its importance. It also explains the different types of conditions in which data loss may occur and also explains some important terms related with RAID and memory storage. Different types of RAID level their relative advantages and disadvantages are also described clearly. The suitability and selection of different types of RAID levels in different types of conditions and also on different types of data are also explained with the help of flow chart.

 

Rajesh Kumar Garg

Dy. General Manager (Plg & IT) Jaipur

 

WIMAX for Wireless Access

 

Wireless access networks based on WIMAX-compliant solutions provide an opportunity for operators to participate in the high growth opportunity that exist in emerging markets. Where the traditional wire-line infrastructure is either non-existent or only accessible to a small segment of the populations, WiMAX-based access networks will enable local operators to cost-effectively reach millions of new potential customers and provide them with traditional voice and broadcast data services that upto now been denied. This article presents an overview of WiMAX standards and wireless access solutions for deployment.

 

V.S.V.Prasad

AGM (Engg-IT) T&D Circle, Jabalpur

 

JULY – AUGUST 2005

 

Internet Protocol Version 6

 

The present day Internet Protocol in use is IPv4, which has got limitations to meet the demands due to growing expansion of Internet. In order to overcome these limitations and keeping in view the future demands of Internet, the latest version of Internet Protocol IPv6 has been designed by IETF. IPv6 has native legacy support built into it that will allow it to communicate directly with the current IPv4 addressing system already in use on the Internet. This article presents an overview of IPv6.

 

Ambrish Agrawal

Ex. General Manager, T&D Circle & Telecom Consultant

&

Divij Agarwal

B.E. (E&C) NIT Jaipur

 

Number Portability

 

This article describes Number Portability and the various related issues and solutions with an emphasis on Service Provider Portability referred to as Local Number Portability. Number Portability is a Telecommunication Network feature that enables the end user to retain their telephone numbers when changing service providers, service types and or locations.

 

N.S.Gill

Retd. CGM BSNL, Shimla

 

Wimax

 

WIMAX (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access) forum is promoting the deployment of Broadband Wireless Access network by setting the profiles based on IEEE 802.16 standard. WIMAX is also instrumental in harmonization of IEE 802.16 and the European Telecommunications Standard Institute a (ETSI) High-performance radio Metropolitan Area Network (Hiper MAN)

 

Neeraj Pandey

Dy. CSTE (Signals), West Central Railway, Jabalpur

 

Switched Multimegabit Data Service

 

Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) is a high-speed, packet-switched, datagram-based WAN networking technology used for communication over Public Data Networks (PDNs). SMDS cause fibre or copper-based media. It supports speeds of 1.544 mbps over DS-1 transmission facilities, or 44.736 mbps over DS-3 transmission facilities. This article summarizes the operational elements of the SMDS environment and outlines the underlying protocol. A discussion of related technologies, such as Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) is also provided along with discussions of SMDS access classes and cell formats.

 

Shashi Banzal

Assistant Professor, Gujrati Science College, Indore

 

May-June 2005

WDM & OPTICSL MPLS

There is always an increasing demand for higher capacity systems and more bandwidth. Therefore new technological solutions have to be found for this exponential growth. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technologies being deployed in a large way by different service providers to met this growing demand. Wavelength Division Multiplexing is gaining importance due to the tremendous increase in capacity, it can provide. This article covers the basic principle of WDM operation. In the later part of the article optical MPLS concepts are given. Through this technology is in the early stages of development, but  it holds lot of promise for the future.

Ambrish Agarwal

Rtd.  GM and CEO of an ISP company

&

Divij Agarwal

From NIT, Jaipur

 

3G EVOLUTION TOWARDS BROADBAND

 

Broadband is a basis for enabling multimedia communication including video services, which requires transmission of a large amount of data; it naturally calls media convergence aspect,  based on packet transport, advocating the integration of various media on different qualities. In this article, various new technologies which shall be required to put broadband services in practical use are discussed.

 

Rajesh Khanna

Asst. Professor in Dept. of Commn. in Thapar Institute of Engg. & Tech. Patiala

&

Rajiv  Saxena,

Principal, RIT,  Gwalior

 

AN OVERVIEW OF MPLS-VPN

 

Many of the IP based solutions require IP address-mapping or double encapsulation using two IP headers. This can require complex configuration management and requires additional processing at the entry to and exit from the Service Provider's networks. The new Internet technology, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) forwards data using labels that are attached to each data packet. Intermediate MPLS  nodes do not need to look at the content of the data in each packet. In particular the destination IP addresses in the packets are not examined, which enables MPLS to offer an efficient encapsulation mechanism for private data traffic  traversing the SP backbone. MPLS can,  therefore, provide an excellent base technology for standards-based VPNs. This article presents an overview of MPLS-VPNs and their applications.

 

V.S.V. Prasad

AGM (Engg. &IT), T&D Circle, Jabalpur

 

BROADBAND ON COPPER LOOP

 

Broadband refers most commonly to the new generation of high speed transmission services, more than 256 kbps to several mbps which allows users to access the Internet and Internet related services at hisher speed. Cable modems, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), Ethernet, ADSL and other type of DSL are technologies commonly used for Broadband services. This article describes the broadband services for residential users on  twisted  copper pair.

 

M.T. Kolate

SDE  (Internet), BSNL, Jalgaon (MH)

 

WIRELESS FIDELITY

 

The popularity  of Wireless fidelity (WiFi) has been burgeoning in the recent times. The widespread use of networks in the world of business & academics and growth of the Internet and online services underscore the advantages of common access to data and resources over the wireless link. Thanks to Wireless Fidelity, user can access shared information without the need for any physical link. this article presents Wi-Fi in concept, applications, roaming and challenges for consumers and enterprises.

 

Jivesh Givil

From NSIT (Delhi University)

 

March - April 2005

 

INTERNET SERVICES OF BSNL   

 

Sancharnet is a very popular service offered by BSNL. In this article, various methods of accessing Sancharnet are explained along with the commercial details. All the employees of BSNL should get themselves familiar with the various promotional schemes offered by BSNL for increasing the Sancharnet connections and popularizing them among the public.

 

L. Anantharam

GMT, BSNL, Eluru (AP)

 

PROXY SERVER

 

A Proxy server is a kind of buffer between your computer and the Internet resources you are accessing. Proxy servers accumulate and save files that are most often requested by thousands of Internet users in a special database, called "cache". Therefore, Proxy servers are able to increase the speed of your connection to the Internet. The cache of a Proxy server may already contain information you need by the time of your request, making it possible for the proxy to deliver it immediately. the overall increase in performance may be very high. Also, Proxy servers can help in cases when some owners of the Internet resources impose some restrictions on users from certain countries or geographical regions. In addition to that, among Proxy servers there are so called anonymous Proxy servers that hide your IP address thereby saving you from vulnerabilities concerned with it.

 

Shashi Banzal

Asst. Professor, PMB Gujarati Science College, Indore.

 

COMPUTERIZATION OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

 

Computerization of material management is essential for proper and accurate accounting of material. This article describes the concept of Material Management along with the features  of Material Management Software (MMS) which was implemented in Jaipur Telecom District through on-line computer network. The MMS at Jaipur has feature of graphical reports related with Material Management. This article will help to understand about Material Management concepts and also the features of Material Management Software.

 

Rajesh Kumar Garg

Dy. GM (Plg. & IT), BSNL, Jaipur

 

OPTICAL MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

 

Optical Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (OMEMSs) are capable of meeting the requirements of a scalable, flexible and dynamic broadband all optical network. It is a micro-scaled technology, which utilizes the silicon integrated circuit fabrication process. Optical MEMS products are appearing in many forms such as large-scale optical cross-connects, tunable lasers, variable optical attenuators and filters. It is regarded as an essential technology for improving the performance and efficiency of all-optical networks as well as a means to reduce costs. This article discusses briefly the evolution in optical communication networks, MEMS technology for optical devices, the present scenario and future indications of optical MEMS technology.

 

Rajiv Kumar

Area GM, BSNL, Rajpura (Punjab)

 

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

 

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an integrated software program that runs off a single database so that various departments in an organization can more easily share the information and communicate with each other. This integrated approach shall have a tremendous payback both in terms of operations and provision of services. This article presents an overview of ERP.

 

Sunil Kumar Sharma

DET (IN) in VAS Unit of MTNL, New Delhi

 

EDGE TECHNOLOGY

 

Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE) is the next step in the evolution of GSM. EDGE is a method to increase the data rates on the radio link for GSM. Basically, EDGE only introduces a new modulation technique and new channel coding that can be used to transmit both packet-switched and circuit-switched boice and data services. EDGE is a cost effective way of migration to full-blown 3G services considering GSM and GPRS as base network.  This article presents an overview of EDGE Technology.

 

Parteek Bhatia

Lecturer in Dept of Computer Science, TIE&T, Patiala

&

Sanmeet Bhatia

A Student of M. Tech. (IT)

 

SQL INJECTION AND INTERNET SECURITY

 

At the advent of the Internet in to the world which made it a global village, it is highly relevant to check the security in pace with the technology. As Threat + Vulnerability = Risk, ways to prevent intruders and attackers should be kept in mind. This article discusses about the means of attacks made by the attackers in order to break into the database of the websites and there by gain the admin rights. It includes the mode and severity of the attacks made by the intruders and solely discusses the vulnerabilities of the websites based on ASP which uses MS SQL Server. However, the attacks are made even on other species  like JSP, Oracle etc. It describes the measures to prevent the possibility of the SQL Injection across the networks by introducing the principle of validation of the input through the web pages and there by eliminating the spooky phrases which cause the SQL Injection.

 

K.R.L. Narasimha Rao

A Student of B. Tech. from PVPSIT, Vijayawada (AP)

 

January -February 2005

 

BUILDING UP INTRANET IN TELECOM CIRCLES

 

The path-breaking technological innovations in the field of Computer Networking has brought to the door-step of BSNL several solutions which combined with the inherent strength of having its own telecom infrastructure in terms of highly reliable PCM network, paves the way for building up cost-effective and High-bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WANs) suitable for implementation of Integrated Packages for Customer Services like DOTSoft and Integrated Trichur, Centralized FRS with IVRS, Fully Online Call Centers and host of other applications for increasing productivity in BSNL.

 

Rajiv Gupta

Dy. GM (IT), BSNL, UP (West) Telecom Circle

 

EMG DATA COMPRESSION FOR TELEMEDICINE

 

Electromyogram (EMG) signal is used to diagnose the various neuromuscular and muscular disorders in humans. This work is of a great importance in the field of Telemedicine where patient's health care is achieved by transferring large diagnostic data to the specialist through communication lines. In this article, a new technique for EMG signal compression i.e. Wavelet-based Vector Quantization is proposed. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is applied to the EMG signal samples to get the wavelet coefficients, which are converted to a matrix of tree vectors. The vectors are then encoded by Vector Quantization (VG) to set a codebook to generate the encoded signal. The encoded vector is a set of indexes of the codebook vectors. Finally the signal is decoded using Inverse Vector Quantization, which uses a copy of the same code book. This is followed by inverse wavelet transform to generate a re-constructed signal. Tests were performed on EMG records obtained from P.G.I. (Chandigarh). A good quality of re-constructed signal and sufficient compression is achieved by this technique which is helpful in transferring large medical data for Telemedicine, through communications lines.

 

Suprika Vasudeva

ME From PEC, Chandigarh

&

Neelu Jain

Lecturer in PEC, Chandigarh

 

MPLS- THE EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGY

 

Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is the latest step in the evolution of routing/forwarding technology for the core of the Internet. MPLS delivers a solution that seamlessly integrates the control of IP routing with the simplicity of Layer 2 switching. MPLS stands for "Multi-protocol" Label Switching, multi-protocol because its techniques are applicable to ANY network layer protocol. This article, however, focuses on the use of IP as the network layer protocol. MPLS has been designed to take advantage of layer 2 switching and flexibility of layer 3 technologies. It allows flexible packet classification and optimization of resources. Packets are routed based on the swapping of labels across the LSP. MPLS based technologies are critical for the successful operation and continued growth of the Internet.

 

Ambrish Agarwal

Rtd.  GM and CEO of an ISP company

&

Divij Agarwal

From NIT, Jaipur

 

SIGTRAN SUIT OF PROTOCOLS

 

As Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) is graduating from LAN environment to WAN and it is being projected as an alternative to circuit switched networks, means have to be devised for transport of SS7 signaling over IP to allow Internet working between PSTN and VOIP. Sigran has been entrusted with this task only by IETF. This article presents an overview of Sigran suit of protocols.

 

Neeraj Pandey

Dy. CSTE (Signals), West Central Railway, Jabalpur

 

 

PROTOCOL ANALYZER

 

Protocol Analyzer, a signaling monitoring tool is used extensively in GSM network. This is very much required while integrating different PLMNs for National/International roaming for pre-paid/post-paid subscribers. This article presents an overview of K1205 tester and its usage in the testing of GSM network.

 

B. Sekar Babu

SDE A/T, BSNL, T&D Circle, Chennai

 

MIRAI ARCHITECTURE

 

Multimedia Integrated Network by Radio Access Innovation (MIRAI)  is one of the Japanese national projects of the e-Japan Plan for the seamless integration of heterogeneous wireless systems. This project aims to unite different kinds of wireless access technologies so that the services can be accessed through an optimum network. This project is currently under experimental demonstration and will be available for practical use by the year 2005. The seamless integration of heterogeneous wireless systems will bring about a drastic revolution in the wireless communication industry. This article covers an overview of MIRAI network concept.

 

S. Anil Kumar

DE (External-West), BSNL, Kaithamukku, Trivandrum

 

November - December 2004

 

MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS: ANTENNA ARRAYS

 

The demand for wireless mobile communication services is growing at an explosive rate; with the anticipation that communication to a mobile device anywhere on the globe at all times will be available in the near future. An array of antennae mounted on vehicles, ships, aircrafts, satellites and base stations is expected to play an important role in fulfilling the increased demand of channel requirement for these services as well as for the realization of the dream that a portable communication device at a low cost will be available for such services.

 

Rekha Agarwal

Sr. Lecturer in Electronics Engg. Dept, Amity School of Engg & Tech. New Delhi

&

Arun Agarwal

Director (R), TEC, New Delhi

 

MIGRATION TO NEW INTERNET PROTOCOL IPv6

 

With changing scenario, a lot of changes in Internet Protocol have occurred. At present we are using IPv4 but seeing the growth in this field, it has become very difficult to manage the whole system with IPv4 protocol based structure. the latest development in this field is IPv6 which has already entered in many countries and people started taking benefit using this. this article presents a comprehensive view of IPv6.

 

Sunil Kumar Sharma

DGM (IN), MTNL, New Delhi

 

FIREWALLS

 

A Firewall is a security measure that prevents unauthorized users from gaining access to a computer network or that monitors transmission of information to and from the network. Firewalls are essential in slowing down the transmission of viruses and worms, but can also be used to help decrease the amount of unwanted spam that the network's clients receive. this article presents an overview of firewalls.

 

Shashi Banzal

Asst. Professor, PMB Gujarati Science College, Indore.

 

THE GSM EDGE

 

The acronym EDGE stands for Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution. The present GSM network works on circuit switched technology and GPRS i.e. General Packet Radio Service uses packet technology for data transfer. The data speed can be increased up to 115 kbps by simultaneous allotment of all the eight  channels to a single user. EDGE is a 3G-radio technology, which roughly triples the data transfer speed of GPRS. edge would provide data transmission speed upto  383 kbps. The objective of this article is to provide  fundamental/basic knowledge of EDGE.

 

U.K. Yadav

DGM, RTTC Rajpura

 

INTERNET BASICS (PART 2)

 

Before Internet, other  technology platforms were experimented on the telecommunications network, but most projects could not find  large-scale consumer acceptance because of obvious reasons: few people had access to equipment such as computers. Moreover, shopping or communications via PC involved a new habit that was often user-unfriendly, computers were quite expensive, and the technology platforms of the early days were generally unstable to support a great user mass. The social and technological  driving forces (affordability, convenience, stability, and availability) have contributed greatly to the popularity and success of today's Internet in many ways. The society at large is more familiar with  technology, and education rate is rising, computers are found in nearly most of the households and at all institutions, there is a greater need to save time/labor in conducing business and personal transactions, the Web medium has drastically reduced the price of goods and services due to automation (efficiency) of activities, today's Internet platform is robust and powerful, a great bandwidth is available in a variety of packages (cables, DSL, satellite), and finally, the price of PCs are extremely affordable for any common user especially in the industrialized world. The second and the concluding part of this article attempts to cover the application part of the Internet and the e-commerce scenario.

 

V.S.V. Prasad

AGM (Engg. &IT), T&D Circle, Jabalpur

 

GENERIC FRAMING PROCEDURE

 

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) is a framing procedure that along with Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) transforms legacy SONET/SDH networks to Next Generation (NG) SONET/SDH networks. These NGSDH/SONET networks are capable of carrying data traffic in an efficient manner along with traditional voice traffic.

 

Neeraj Pandey

Dy. CSTE (Signals), West Central Railway, Jabalpur

 

EMERGING TRENDS IN TELECOM TECHNOLOGIES

 

In this area of global competitiveness and changing regulatory environment, Telecom Service Providers are deploying latest telecom technologies to remain market leaders in their respective fields. The drivers for the future trends are convergence, multiple service provisioning, broadband access, mobility, Interactive terminals, access over IP networks, reliable, scalable and better managed networks. This article presents an overview of these emerging trends in telecom technologies.

 

K.C. Chug

DE (Admn), RTTC, Rajpura

&

RandeeplSharma

SDE  (Prog.), RTTC, Rajpura

 

CONGESTION CONTROL PROCEDURE OF SCCP OF SS7 PROTOCOL STACK

 

Congestion control functions for the Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) networks according to ITU-T recommendations has been described in [1], except Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) congestion control functions. This article attempts to describe the congestion control procedures of SCCP of SS7 Protocol Stack which are spread widely across the ITU-T recommendations.

 

Dr. B.V. RAMANA Reddy

Reader  in the School of IT, Indraprastha University, Delhi

&

Priyatosh Mandal

Research Engr.,  C-DOT, New Delhi

 

September - October 2004

MULTIMEDIA MESSAGING SERVICE

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is an emerging service, which facilitates sending of multiple media in a single message. A mobile phone supporting MMS is an amazingly versatile device. The ability to take, edit and send the personalized images would empower the user in all walks of life, bringing the power & freedom of complete communication to fingertips which would further be enhancing personal connectivity & efficiency and thus sense of security.

Rajiv Kumar
Area GM, Rajpura, Punjab Telecom Circle
&
U.K.Yadav
DGM, RTTC, Rajpura, Punjab Telecom Circle

MODELING OF THREE DIMENSIONAL TRAFFIC FOR A NETWORK

Most convenient way of presenting one or two dimensional offered traffic of a network by Markovian chain hence cut or node equation is applied to achive any probability state and QoS. State transition diagram becomes very complicated for three dimensional case hence application of cut or node equation becomes a cumbersome job. This article proposes a model of three dimensional traffic of both unlimited and limited user case. Authors also give a theoretical analysis of uniform and non-uniform bandwidth traffic for infinite user case and of course some one can do the same job for limited user case with the same idea given here. This model would be helpful for a network planer to evaluate QoS of a network like 3G mobile cellular network, pico net of Bluetooth, Wireless Local Loop etc.

Md. Imdadul Islam
Associate Professor, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka
&
Dr.A.B.M.Siddique Hossain
Member IEEE, Bangladesh

COARSE WAVELENGTH

Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) is a multiprotocol technology, which is simple in design and lower in cost. CWDM is fast emerging as a preferred choice for service providers in the metro access and metro core market places. It delivers multiple Wavelength through an optical fibre at a fraction of the cost and complexity of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) systems. This article presents an overview of CWDM technology and its cost effectiveness.


Neeraj Pandey
Dy. CSTE (Signals), WCR, Jabalpur

QoS IN CONVERGED NETWORKS

Deploying QoS (Quality of Services) for any service provider is very important. In the busy networks of today, implementing QoS has become a prime concern of most of the service providers including ISPs. With the growing demand for converged networks from the customers’ side the QoS policies have a major role to play. With the bandwidth becoming a limiting factor in networks of today, efficient deployment and implementation of effective QoS has become the need of the hour. In this article, QoS in converged network has been discussed. A converged network is one that supports both voice and video in conjunction with data applications. The three applications make use of the same resources such as bandwidth, physical media, transmission networks etc.

Ambrish Agarwal
Ex. CGM T&D Circle, Jabalpur
&
Divij Agarwal
B.E. (Final Year) Elect & Comm., N.I.T. Jaipur

WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP

Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) technology, applied for last-mile “limited mobility” connectivity in India, has been causing sleepless nights to mobile operators. That’s because its tariffs are similar to landline, free incoming, outgoing are very cheaper and monthly rentals are now reduced to near-landline levels. This article presents an overview of WLL technology.

Parteek Bhatia
Lecturer, DAV College, Amritsar
&
Smt. Sanmeet Bhatia
TTA, Amritsar SSA

GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE

This article provides an introduction to General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology which is a major step between Second Generation (2G) mobile services used now-a-days and future Third Generation (3G) technologies. In addition to voice services, GPRS will add support for “always on” packet data access and, eventually, new multimedia type of wireless services. This article also gives an insight into the basis structure of the GPRS network giving the advantages and disadvantages of GPRS.

Ms.Neerja Thakur
BBKDAV College, Amritsar


July - August 2004

RISC PROCESSOR

Now-a-days, the modern computers evolved in one of the two ways. In one approach, a computer has a large number of instructions, many of which are capable of performing complex task, and it is called Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC). In another approach, it is called Reduced instruction Set Computer (RISC). A RISC is a computer intended to efficiently execute programs written in high level languages. Its instruction set consists of instructions that are easily used by compilers and they can be executed at a high rate using techniques such as pipelining. RISC instructions perform simple, basic operations and use a small number of addressing modes.

Shashi Banzal
Assistant Professor, Gujarati Science College, Indore

CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO

CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO is a new interface developed to cater for high end data applications. It is having asymmetrical data rates with high data rate on upstream and low data rate on downstream making it most suitable for Internet applications. It can be overlaid over CDMA 200 1x/IS-95 as well. This article presents an overview of this high data rate technology.


Neeraj Pandey
Dy. CSTE (Signals), WCR, Jabalpur

SIGNALING TECHNIQUES IN CPM

Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) techniques are finding a special thrust in the areas of wireless and mobile communication. More and more CPM schemes are developed with full and partial response signaling. This article provides an analysis of present CPM methods under the various signaling schemes in a tabulated manner.

A.Mishra
Reader, Deptt. Of Applied Physics, Gwalior
&
Dr.Rajiv Saxena
Principal, Rustamji Institute of Technology BSF, Gwalior
&
Dr.Y.M.Gupta
Professor, ABV IITM, Gwalior

QMS IN TRAINING CENTRES

This article deals with Quality Management System (QMS) that can be adopted in all training centers and its importance. It also shares the experience of getting the ISO certification, as RGM CTTC is one of the ISO certificate organizations.

J.Santhanakrishanan
DGM, RGM CTTC, Chennia
&
M.Raghavendra Rao
RGM CTTC, Chennai


WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

Flexibility and mobility inherently associated with a wireless medium makes it both effective and attractive alternative to wired networks. Definitely the future of wireless communication is very bright with a promise of user friendly wearable wireless devices, new broadband services at a reasonable cost coupled with seamless world-wide roaming capability and terminal & number portability facilities. Such wireless networks would represent the next big push for always on, always active and always connected communication platform of the future for the larger benefit of mankind.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager, Rajpura, Punjab Circle


WIRELESS LAN

With the technological changes taking place at rapid pace, the need for transmitting higher data rates using mobile device is always a challenge being faced by the network designers. There are many applications of mobile data communications. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is one such upcoming technology. It uses the generic 802.11 networking standards that enable computers within a short distance (around few hundred feet) of a base station to share a net connection. This Wireless LAN (Local Area Network) offers internet access speeds upto several megabits per second. The base station in the Wi-Fi system is connected to a stable (broadband) Internet connection and a number of wireless nets and repeater transmitters. They are being deployed in places like airports, hotels, university campuses etc and are known as “Hot-Spots”.

Ambrish Agrawal
Ex. GM T&D Circle, Jabalpur


May - June 2004

GSM TERMINOLOGY

There have been tremendous global developments in wireless technologies. GSM and CDMA systems have undergone vast growth in the recent years. More and more advances are likely to take place in mobile services. This article provides in detail the various terminologies as applicable in the field of mobile communications.

N.S. Gill
Retired CGM, HP Telecom Circle

GPRS - AN INTRODUCTION

The present GSM network works on circuit-switching technology. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) uses packet technology for data transfer. The data speed can be increased up to 171.2 kbps by simultaneous allotment of all the eight channels to a single user. Wide range of value added services like web browsing, e-mail, audio clips, video clips could be provided to the existing GSM subscriber with the upgradation of present GSM network.

U.K. Yadav
DGM, RTTC, Rajpura

MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES 3G AND BEYOND

The recent convergence of the Internet and mobile radio has accelerated the demand for 'Internet on move' on light, low-cost terminals, as well as for radio technologies that boost data throughput and reduce the cost per bit. Mobile networks are now going multimedia, potentially leading to an explosion in throughput from a few bytes for the Short Message Service (SMS) to a few kbps for the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), to several 100 kbps for video content. this article presents an overview of the factors involved and the future trends in evolution of mobile technologies 3G and beyond.

V.S.V. Prasad
AGM (ENGG & IT), T&D Circle, Jabalpur.

MPLS - VPN SERVICE

The demand for data transmission on telecommunication network has tremendously increased in recent past. The Servie Provider has to meet the demand of the customer who wants high quality of transmission environment with greater speed of operation for their data networks. The new Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique, which blends both Layer 2 and Layer 3 functionalities of OSI supports high quality as well as high speed. The customers' leased line data circuits connected to Managed Leased Line Network can be configured into private network to offer them MPLS based VPN (Virtual Private Network). In this article, the scope of MPLS-VPN has been explained with details of the network components, architecture, objectives and principle of working.


A. A. Ganesan
Divisioal Engineer (TAX), BSNL, Chennai

WLL NETWORK IN DYNAMIC CHANNEL ALLOCATION ENVIRONMENT

To cope with constant growth of user demand, the coverage of wireless cellular network is growing rapidly. One important theme of Tele-traffic engineering regarding network planning is that large group of channels are more efficient than smaller one in resisting average call blocking probability. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) makes smaller groups of channels to resemble a large group. This article proposes three different state transition models of DCA in enhancement of carried traffic of Wireless Local Loop (WLL). In WLL, customers are stationary and the number of users in a cell is finite therefore, the traffic model of this article is limited source model i.e. Pure Chance Traffic-II (PCT-II) traffic model. This article mainly deals with three take-back models with state transition chain and finally shows the impact of take-back on call blocking probability, probability of using nominal channel and probability of using borrowed channel. This article gives complete analysis of proposed traffic model with numerical result for validation.

Md. Imdadul Islam
Pursuing Ph.D at the Dept of EEE, BUET, Dhaka
&
Dr. A.B.M. Siddique Hossain
HOD, Dept of EEE, BUET, Dhaka

SPEECH COMPRESSION USING LPC AND ATR

One of the most powerful speech analysis techniques is the method of Linear Predictive Analysis. This method has become the predominant technique for estimating the basic speech parameters and for representing speech at low bit rate transmission or storage. In this article, new method of speech compression has been proposed. The method implemented is a parametric model, i.e. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) with a new technique, Arithmetic Truncation and Randomization (ATR) in cascaded form which implemets the compression at low bit rated. LLPC has two independent approaches, viz. Autocorrelation and Covariance. Both of these have been implemented prior to ATR. The proposed method has been tested on ten different speech signals with the computation of different number of LPC coefficients per frame and at different sampling rates. Results show that LPC in concatenation with ATR provides a gigher compression ratio. Good quality re-constructed speech signal is obtained with LPC Autocorrelation along with ATR.

Vishal Shrivastava
ME from Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh
&
Ms. Neelu Jain
Lecturer, Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh

GLOSSARY OF SOME NOVEL TERMS IN MOBILE TECHNOLOGY

Compiled by V.S.V. Prasad
AGM (ENGG & IT), T&D Circle, Jabalpur


March - April 2004

GSM TO GPRS

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an “always on” service. It will allow GSM (Global System for Mobile) operators to provide high speed Internet access at a reasonable cost by billing mobile phone users for the amount of data they transfer rather than for the length of time they are connected to the network.


Parteek Bhatia
Lecturer, DAV College, Amritsar
&
Smt.Sanmeet Bhatia
TTA, Amritsar SSA


E-MAILING OVER PHONE

This article describes a scheme by which e-mails can be accessed using a phone line without using a Computer. This is an innovating scheme proposed by the author which can be supplemented as a value added service with the existing network infrastructure.

Nishanath Banerjee
General Manager (Dev.), Assam Telecom Circle

INTERNET BASICS (Part – 1)

Internet is an evolving phenomenon influencing every sphere of human activity bringing radical changes in the way people communicate with each other. The ever-increasing demand for Internet based services and the spread of Internet has disbanded all the barriers world-wide thus truly evolving the global village concept in the field of communication. This first part of the article presents an overview of Internet basics covering the basic issues of its history, organization, networking principles and routing.

V.S.V.Prasad
AGM (Engg), T&D Circle, Jabalpur

ROUTER SECURITY

This article mainly deals with the security aspects of routers with specific reference to CISCO routers. While hinting at the threats due to unsecured routers, it provides to the reader some practical solutions to ensure that the networks are free from foreign attacks. Various steps in securing the routers discussed here may prove to be very useful for those who are engaged in maintenance of Computer networks.

Satyajit Gupte
2nd Year student, Goa University

January - February 2004

LOCATION BASED SERVICES

This article provides an overview of terms, technologies and standards used within the Location Based Services field in the determination and presentation of the location of an entity. Some insight is given into how location information could be used in a range of applications.

B.K.Gupta
DGM (Switching), BRBRAITT, Jabalpur

SMART ANTENNAE

In the last couple of years smart antennae for mobile communications have raised enormous interest world-wide. Smart antennae introduce a number of advantages to cellular networks including increased range, a higher level of security and the possibility for new services. This article gives an overview of the technology and the different ways in which it is foreseen to influence mobile communications systems. A broad definition of smart antennae is used in this article, namely base station antennae with a pattern that is not fixed, but adapt to the current radio conditions. It is reported that smart antennae facilitate an increase of three times in capacity for TDMA systems and five times for CDMA systems. Other advantages include increased range and the potential to introduce new services. Major drawbacks include cost factors, increased transceiver complexity and more complex radio resource management. The discussion on critical factors and technological challenges including achieving equal performance on uplink and downlink as well as real-time calibration of the receiver and transmitter chains are also included.

H.K.Bhatt
Ex.AGM, T&D Circle, Jabalpur
&
V.S.V.Prasad
AGM (Engg), T&D Circle, Jabalpur

CORDECT TECHNOLOGY

CorDECT system is WLL based system which demultiplexes voice from data at the Access Center, solves the problems of the dial-up network and reduces the overall system cost.

Parteek Bhatia
Lecturer, DAV College, Amritsar
&
Smt.Sanmeet Bhatia
TTA, Amritsar

LAYER 4 THROUGH 7 SWITCHING

Changing traffic pattern of Internet and Intranet require additional intelligence at higher layer protocols. Layer 4 through 7 switches are designed with better performance software and hardware fabrics to provide improved Internet performance. This article presents an overview of Layer 4 through 7 intelligent switches.

Neeraj Pandey
Sr.DSTE, West Central Railway, Jabalpur

November - December 2003 Issue

DIGITAL SERVICE MODELLING IN THE KU-BAND SPECTRUM

This article discusses the issues pertaining to the implementation of the Ku-band satellite link and elaborates the guidelines for service modeling with impairment mitigation. At higher end of microwave spectrum, attenuations due to scintillation, atmospheric particles, cloud, snow and rain dominate. A fixed excessive power margin corroborates into a significant increase in the uplink terminal’s cost. Propagation impairment mitigation techniques have to be incorporated into the system design to overcome signal fades in real time without the use of fixed fade margins.

Ms.Navneet Kaur
Dy.Director, Doordarshan, New Delhi
&
Vijendra Barania
A.E., Doordarshan Kendra, Bhopal


HOST SIGNAL PROCESSING

Designing today’s personal computer systems represents an ever-more difficult challenge for the engineers. In addition to proving higher levels of performance with each new model, there is constant pressure to add new features without an appreciable rise in cost. Rather than following the tried-and-true approach of shoe-horning ever-increasing quantities of logic gates into their products, more and more designers are turning to Host Signal Processing (HSP) technology to help them meet the demands of this rapidly evolving market. This article presents an overview of soft communication using HSP.

Dr.Jasvir Singh
Reader, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar


RESILIENT PACKET RING

Resilient Packet Ring is an emerging technology optimized for transport of data traffic particularly over Metro rings. It is currently under standardization process under the auspices of IEEE as 802.17b. It effectively extends Ethernet beyond the confines of campus to Metro and Wide Area Network (WANs). This article presents an analytical view of the said technology.

Neeraj Pandey
Sr.DSTE, West Central Railway, Jabalpur.


OPTICAL-FIBRE-IMPAIRMENTS (PART-2)

After travelling certain distance inside the fibre, the consecutive pulses of light, launched into the fibre by an optical-source, do not remain as healthy as they were at the time of their launch. This happens due to various phenomena, taking place inside the fibre. These phenomena are impairments to the health of the optical pulse travelling through the fibre. Part-1 of the article gave a snap shot of various fibre types and the classification of various fibre impairments, systematically discussed fibre attenuation and two types of dispersions namely Modal Dispersion and Chromatic Dispersion (CD). How CD can be controlled by use of improvised SLM-DFB lasers, is discussed in this part of the article. This concluding part-2 of the article also discusses about PMD, NLEs, their causes, effects and probable remedies & the requirements of modern networking techniques from fibres. .

Udit Shrivastava
DGM Tarn Taran

September - October 2003 Issue

OPTIMIZATION OF VSAT NETWORK BY USING FEC CODING

In asymmetric radio networks, such as in Internet data networks, volume of data traffic in one direction is larger than that in the other direction. The advantage of relatively lower traffic in one direction can be taken for using selectable FEC coders to optimize the communication system performance. An FEC processor at each end of link can be employed to select an FEC fork the entire channel which maintains a constant Eb/No for a specified BER. By keeping the link BER unchanged from uncoded to coded channel conditions, the coding gain of FEC can be used to optimize VSAT configuration or the satellite transponder EIRP without affecting error performance, even in adverse propagation conditions. When compared to uncoded link a suitable protocol can be developed to transmit the information regarding selected FEC for the entire link. Overall system can thus be optimized for ensuring minimum cost.

V.S.Bagad
Lecturer, Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune
&
Pankay V.Dudulwar
B.E.(Electronics & Telecommunications)


OPTICAL-FIBRE-IMPAIRMENTS (PART – 01)

Optical fibre, thanks to its well known advantages over conventional electrical cables, is established today as the most preferred media for communication in each and every portion of the network. The understanding of various Optical Fibre Impairments is key to understand different issues related to the processes of designing, planning, operation, maintenance and troubleshooting op the optical networks, irrespective of the system involved in the network – PDH, SDH, DWDM or DLC. After traveling certain distance inside the fibre, the consecutive pulses of light, launched into the fibre by an optical-source, do not remain as healthy as they were at the time of their launch. This happens due to various phenomena, taking place inside the fibre. These phenomena are impairments to the health of the optical pulses traveling through the fibre. This first part of the article gives a snap shot of various fibre types, systematically discusses different Optical Fibre Impairments and network requirements from fibres.

Udit Shrivastava
DGM, Tam Taran, BSNL


WIRELESS COMMUNICATION IN SOFTWARE DOMAIN

Flexible Radio platforms are required in support of mobile service diversity and rapid development of new product services. The focus has shifted from the underlying transport mechanisms to services delivery. Services are deployed with the main driving force being the economy of scale. Software-Defined Radio (SDR) provides a powerful paradigm in flexible wireless service provisioning. By digitizing information close to the antenna, digital receive and transmit signal processing allows radio designs to increasingly move away from discrete component implementation, thus increasing yield and reducing cost, complexity and time-to-market. Whilst some radio sections are replaced with either standard mixed analogue/digital (e.g. A/D, D/A) or fully digital (e.g. Up-converter, Down-converter) processing blocks, others are fully implemented in software (e.g. modulator, channel coder). Because these building blocks may be selected, configured and/or programmed to support different air interfaces, they are enabling factors in the implementation of multi-band multi-protocol radios. This article presents an overview of the Software Radio Communication.

Dr.Jasvir Singh
Reader, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.

ETHERNET OVER SDH

Ethernet over SDH is a part of Next Generation SDH system, under which new data transport services over fibre have emerged. These new data services utilize traditional old but reliable SDH technologies allowing carriers to offer bouquet of services to their esteemed customers. This article presents an overview of Ethernet over SDH.

Neeraj Pandey
Sr.DSTE, West Central Railway, Jabalpur

DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

The present era of communication is totally governed by digital modulation techniques. In this article, major digital modulation techniques are reported with a comparative study in a tabular manner helping in establishing the superiority of a specific digital modulation method in a particular application.

Abhay Mishra
Lecturer, MITS, Gwalior
Rajiv Saxena
Professor, MITS, Gwalior
&
Y.M.Gupta
Professor ABV-III TM, Gwalior

July - August 2003 Issue

NEXT GENERATION NETWORK

The key objective of Next Generation Network (NGN) is to provide a single unified network for wire line and wireless network access which offers multi media services. It shall have a distributed network, capacity added when and where it is actually required. It shall provide standard interface for faster service delivery. The switching and peripheral functions are de-linked to reduce vendor dependence.

N.S.Gill
CGM (Retd) H.P.Circle, Shimla

CWDM FOR METRO OFC RINGS

Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) has come of age in the past year or so, improving its potential for meeting the demand for a low-cost way of adding capacity to metro networks without having to lay fibre. In principle, CWDM can match the basic switching capabilities of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), but with the inherent trade off of lower capacity for lower cost. This article looks at some of the common cases where CWDM really does have a winning cost advantage over DWDM.

S.K.Chakravarty
CGM, Telecom Projects, BSNL
&
Ipsito Chakravarty
B.Tech Final Year

EVOLUTION OF OPTICAL CORE NETWORK

This article presents a summary of the recent history and potential future of optical transmission network, from a generic perspective. It includes how new developments have supported and will continue to support growth in telecommunications traffic, increased demands for high reliability and for rapid service provision. Above all, cost reduction is needed to support the mass market for broadband services.

B.K.Gupta
DGM(Switching), BRBRAITT, Jablapur

MULTIRATE SCHEMES IN CDMA SYSTEMS

The existing mobile communications systems mainly support speech services. Also in future systems, speech will be an important service, but with higher quality than in the systems of today, and in conjunction with video and data. Other expected services are image transmission (facsimile) with high resolution and color, and video. Further, the increasing demand for information in our society requires an easy way to access and process information. Therefore, data transmission and wireless computing will be necessary services in any future system. There have been some proposals for systems supporting PCS. They are known as Personal Communications Networks (PCNs), Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems (FPLMTS) and Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS). The main focus has been on the access method, and the competitors seem to be Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). However, in this article we consider Direct Sequence CDMA (DS/CDMA) as access method and focus on how to support the services in PCS.

Smt.Rekha Agarwal
Sr.Lecturer, AMITY School of Engineering & Technology, New Delhi
&
Arun Agarwal
Director (R), TEC, New Delhi

EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CALL CENTER

Call Center technology is widely used by many organizations in the country to improve the Customer Relations Management (CRM) and also to do marketing. Certain parameters which require constant monitoring for effective management of Call Center are discussed in this article. Mainly, the customer behaviour and customer touch points which contribute much in this field, are explained. The importance of quality agents and the necessity to enhance their knowledge and skill in call handling, improved capability in negotiating with customers and efficiency to attempt for maximum first call resolution are emphasized with some details. Some startling statistics based on study conducted in this field are also included.

A.Ganesan
DE, OCB TAX, Chennai Telephones

IMPLEMENTATION OF WAN FOR DOTSOFT

The path breaking technological innovations in the field of computer networking has brought to the door-step of BSNL several solutions which combined with the inherent strength of BSNL of having its own telecom infrastructure in terms of Dark OFC fibres, E1 PCMs and underground Cables, paves the way for building-up highly Cost effective and High-bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN) suitable for implementation of Integrated Packages for Customer Services like DOTSOFT and integrated Trichur, and host of other applications for increasing productivity in BSNL.

Rajeev Gupta
DGM (IT) UP(W)

SOFTWARE RADIO EVOLUTION

The future growth of wireless communications will be driven by the cost effectiveness of infrastructure equipment and end user service and function. The burden of meeting multiple communication standards can be handled using one broad software technology and a variety of software drivers. The Digital Signal Processing (DSP) can be used to implement the data conversion, error correction, carrier tracking and bit timing tracking, feedback algorithm and loops in conjunction with Programmable Down Converter (PDC) and peripheral chips.

Dr.Jasvir Singh
Reader, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

CWDM FOR METRO OFC RINGS

May - June 2003 Issue

SPEECH – CODECS

Every Cellular or WLL operator would like to accommodate more and more users or subscribers within the limited small piece of bandwidth allotted to him by SACFA, in order to achieve this, the Bandwidth per subscriber or the bit rate of the signal from each handset should be kept as low as possible, without making much compromise on the quality of the recovered speech. A very important device known as Speech Codec does this magic. The ultimate objective of speech coding is to transmit, Store or Synthesize speech, at a given quality, using fewer bits or bit rates, in order to achieve high Spectral-Efficiency i.e. optimum utilization of the frequency band allotted by SACFA. The performance of the speech-codecs, to a large extent determines the quality of recovered speech and the capacity of the MOBILE or BSM/WLL/VSAT system. This article describes various issues in respect of Speech-Codecs.

Udit Shrivastava
DE(TL), ALTTC, BSNL, Ghaziabad

DRONA E-SHIKSHA KENDRA

In the present day e-environment, the training function too has evolved into an activity called e-learning. But what is e-learning and what makes it effective? This article deals with limitations of present conventional class room training programmes vis-à-vis technology development and the ways and means to bridge the digital divide by providing a solution through e-learning for all to improve productivity.

J.Santhanakrishnan
Principal, Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Circle Telecom Training Centre, Chennai

BROADBAND

The synergy of two forces – the globalization of business and the networking of Information Technology (IT) has created cast potential for Broadband access. With broadband connection one is able to gain fast and reliable access to richer content of Websites, business information and online services. While Broadband access provides endless possibilities for consumers. It also promises to create new revenue streams for operators, media companies and services providers. This article focuses on the emerging wired and wireless technologies supporting broadband connectivity.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager (Rajpura) Punjab

&
S.K.Kumar
DGM (WLL-GSM) Bangalore Telecom District
 

NUMBERING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT IN GSM

The evolution of global telecommunications in the areas of services, capabilities, and technologies often results in the need for new ITU-T Numbering Resources, that serve functions as numbering, naming, addressing, routing and identification. Although varying in format and function, the one common aspect of these resources is their need for an impartial, uniform, consistent, and effective centralized administration. Each number can be divided in such a way that it can identify Country, Network within Country, Node within Network or Subscriber Number. In GSM PLMN, E.164 and E.212 numbering schemes of ITU-T are used for Network Node and Subscriber. Each part of number has a body that will continue to perform the function of centralized administrator/ registrar for managing the resource (numbers), like allocating numbers. In GSM PLMN, these numbers are used for addressing, identification of various entities/nodes for total information flow for all the supported services like MO/MT Call, Roaming, MO/MT SMS, Voice Mail System and SMS-Interworking.

Shive Narayan
CE (Switching), C-DOT, New Delhi

NEURAL NETWORKS

The present day world of computers and information technology is more demanding than ever. Now the scientists world over are making efforts to convert the passive calculations and the storage feature of a computer to an intelligent device emulating the amazing features of the most advanced thing on the earth “the human brain”. This article takes a look into this new world of intelligence of computers commonly known as Neural-networks.

Smt.Shashi Banzal
Assistant Professor, PMB Gujrati Science College, Indore

March - April 2003 Issue:

DIAS BASIC

DIAS (Direct Internet Access System) is a Network set-up for accessing simultaneously Internet and Telephone Services or any one of the two using the same copper pair of Telephone Lines. It has distinct identity with respect to PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) and Leased Lines. This article highlights some of the basic features of DIAS which are being made operational in many places of BSNL Network.

Amitava Nath
SDE (Lecturer), RTTC, Guwahati

THE MOBILE EVOLUTION

Mobile communication has become an integral part of the growth, success and efficiency of any business and economy. Past few years have witnessed an enormous increase in cellular phone users, appreciable reduction in tariff and increase in talk time with the entry of multiple operators in the field of mobile communication in our country. The growth potential of cellular network is much more than wired network and shortly the mobile users will outnumber land line users. This article presents an overview of mobile evolution.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager, Rajpura, Punjab Circle

SDH SYNCHRONIZATION

In the present competitive era in the field of provisioning of new telecom services (Video, High Speed Data, ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) to the esteemed customers is the key for survival. For achieving QoS the network should be reliable, stable, flexible and should be capable of supporting high bandwidth. Induction of SDH technology in the network is a quantum leap in this direction for meeting the above requirements. However, the behaviour of a working SDH network is very much different from its predecessor, the PDH network, which used to work plesiochronous. SDH requires proper synchronization otherwise it will have excessive jitter & wander. In SDH systems, both jitter & wander are to be taken care of, unlike PDH systems where jitter was the main parameter of interest. Good synchronization is the foundation for CONVERGENCE (integrated voice, video and data services). The article deals with various issues related to the synchronization of SDH networks like various sources of jitter & wander in SDH-PDH hybrid networks, their impact on the QoS, the parameters for judgement of the Quality of Synchronization and the list of International Standards where the safe limits of these parameters are specified.

Udit Shrivastava
DE (TL) ALTTC, BSNL, Ghaziabad

UNWIRING THE WORLD

This article deals with ‘wirelessness’ and the associated developments which have followed historically. Wireless issues are as much in the press today as they were when Marconi was conducting his early experiments a century ago, and are certainly giving the business community plenty to think about. Wirelessness is about to enter a new age which will no doubt offer many opportunities and will certainly change the ways of the world as much as the early ages. Wirelessness removes the “last mile” as a barrier and brings ubiquity to the Internet, transforming it into an anywhere, anytime, context-relevant proposition for people and communities. This will change business, and the impact on economics will be enormous.

B.K.Gupta
DGM(ES-1), BRBRAITT, Jabalpur

SDMA SYSTEMS

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is an accessing technique which allows spatial re-use of frequency. It can be used for mobile communication greatly enhancing the information rate provided to each user and improving radio capacity of system. This article presents design considerations of a mobile system based on SDMA and discusses various aspects of its practical implementation.

Jyoti Gupta
Assistant Professor, Govt. Kalaniketan (Poly), Jabalpur

SINGLE WINDOW CONCEPT IN TELECOM

In the present day Telecommunication scenario when private operators have already started carving their niche, total Customer Delight (Customer Satisfaction is the first step towards Customer Delight) is the mantra for survival. This not only means providing top quality services at affordable prices but also implies that the redressal of customer complaints should be done without any hassles. The esteemed customer should not be made to run from pillar to post for his complaints, as it not only invites wrath of the customer but also tarnishes the image of the organization. The need of the hour is to go for single window concept at various Customer Service Centres (CSCs). This article elucidates the concept of integrated database for various applications, their interconnectivity and Client interface at the CSC, which forms the backbone for the single window concept (Call Centre).

Sanjeev Verma
DE(DTAX), Kolhapur

January & February 2003 Issue:

WEARABLE WIRELESS

Today's handheld computers and other mobile devices such as Mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and watches offer a glimpse of where the industry is moving as the devices continue to decrease in size while enriching their functionality. The days are no too far when these devices will become integrated with the users in such a manner that these will be worn on the body jackets, watches and jewelry. This article presents an overview on developments in wireless world.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager (Rajpura) Punjab

NETWORK SECURITY IN SPREAD SPECTRUM

Spread spectrum technology was primarily developed for defence applications around 70 years back. However, CDMA has now emerged as a strong contender for the future technology of Mobile Telecommunication. This technology has already been deployed extensively in the USA and South Korea. In India also, CGMA is gaining popularity especially for limited mobility due to its low tariff and good spectrum efficiency. Mobile services are being deployed on a massive scale and therefore Network security has assumed greater importance in today's wireless world. Spread spectrum, with its robust coding arrangement, is a good technology in this regard. This article presents an overview on Network security in Spread Spectrum wireless communication.

Rekha Agrawal
Sr. Lecturer, Amity School of Engineering & Tech. New Delhi
&
Arun Agrawal
Director (R) TEC, New Delhi

COUNTER MEASURES IN DMW SYSTEMS

This Article describes various details and advantages of the use of Cross polarization interference cancellors and Adaptive trans power control mechanisms in modern Digital Microwave (DMW) systems. . It also critically examines the relation between the two aspects and is finding out a close correlation between the two. The trans power of both the cross polarized channels shall be the same irrespective of the difference in atmospheric attenuation of both the channels.

R. Saji Kumar
DGM, O/o.CGM, Kerala Telecom Circle, Trivandrum

GENERALIZED MULTI PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING

Generalized Multi protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) supports not only devices that perform packet switching but also those that perform switching in the time, wavelength and space domains. GMPLS requires modifications to current signaling and routing protocols. This article presents an overview of GMPLS architecture, protocols and applications.

Neeraj Pandey
Sr.DSTE, Central Railway, Jabalpur

TRAINING CENTRE AS AN E-CAMPUS

A modest attempt was made at Circle Telecom Training Centre (CTTC), Chennai to network the entire campus and to develop web based applications with MS Access as backend database for all training related activities typical to training centre scenario in our country. This article describes various events like Hardware/Software in-house developments and how a total training campus environment can be translated into a paperless office with a complete success in the participation of the faculty and staff.

J. Santhanakrishnan
Principal, RGMCTTC, Chennai
&
S. Geetha
SDE, RGMCTTC, Chennai

CALL CENTER

In the present day competitive environment, more thrust is given to the Customer Relations Management (CRM) and Customer care. For achieving this a new emerging technological solution is CALL CENTER. This article deals mainly with the setting-up of Call Centres at Exchange/ SSA/Circle level to handle efficiently the customer related problems and to promote services and products of BSNL. The Call Center architecture, main components like PBX, ACD, Telephony Server, CTI and Agent positions are explained. The performance measurement criteria, which are essential for effective management of Cell Center, are also listed. The practical solution to improve customer care achieved by setting-up Help Line Centres (mini Call Centers) at some of the major Exchanges in Chennai Telephones has been cited as example.

A. Ganesan
DE, OCB TAX, Chennai Telephones

LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM

In this world of growing dependency on computers, now even a common user is also bothered about the operating system it uses, not only in terms of its features, user-friendliness and networking but also of its up-gradation to newer versions and the immunity to virus. Out of all available operating system "LINUX" is one such name, which is constantly gaining the lead and the market share, so much so that the giant Microsoft now does not deny the news of sharing its source code with out country. This article covers some basic information about the LINUX, its installations and its relevant internet references with some useful features.

Shashi Banzal
DE, OCB TAX, Chennai Telephones

November & December 2002 Issue:

OPTICAL SWITCHING

Theoretically optical switches seem to be future proof with features of scalability, flexibility, bit rate & protocol independent coupled with lower infrastructure costs but a network service provider must evaluate the pros and cons and all possible options to select optimum combination of electronic and photonic switches to meet the capacity and traffic management requirements. This article presents an overview on optical switches.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager (Rajpura) Punjab

DENSE WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

The technology of combining a number of optical wavelengths and then transmitting the same through a single fibre is called Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Conceptually, the WDM is similar to that of the Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) used in analogue transmission. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is a type of WDM in which optical channels are more closely spaced than WDM. The emergence of DWDM is one of the important phenomena in development of optical fibre transmission. This article gives introduction to DWDM Technology.

P.K. Pandey
DGM (Plg & Admn) O/o.CGM, NTP,New Delhi


OPTICAL FIBRE MANUFACTURE

The production of optical fibres requires rigorous handling of materials to ensure the highest quality of the resulting products. The supply of the gases and chemicals depends greatly on the types and volumes of fibres produced. This article describes the aspects of raw material purity and supply in optical fibre manufacture.

Dr. Art Shirley
Director, BOC Fibre Optic Solutions, USA


ADMS IN AN STM-16 RING

In BSNL Network, STM-16 systems have been planned to work only in the ring configuration with Multiplex Section-Shared Protection (MS-SP) scheme. In SDH Ring Network, Add/Drop Multiplexers (ADMs) are the 'brains'. ADMS have dual fibre optic interface cards and intelligent switching capability allowing them to switch traffic from their primary path to a stand by path in a few milliseconds. This article analyses the limitation if any to the number of ADMs in an STM-16 with MS-SP Ring.

K. Ajith Kumar
Asst. Director (RRC) Trivandrum


SDH STM-16 RING ROUTE OFC

Telecommunication is becoming the central nervous system of modern society. No other technology as digital communication has had such a world-wide impact by putting people in touch around the world through voice, e-mail, internet, data, etc. The CCITT Recommendation for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) related to Network Node Interface Network Architecture, multiplexing equipment, line equipment etc has created a world-wide standard for simultaneous transmission of bit rates at different hierarchy levels without much modifications. This article presents an overview of SDH, SDH Multiplexing, Optical parameters, Modules & functions and system reliability criteria.

A.P. Pillai
Sr.SDE, M/W Maintenance, Pune


CELLULAR (IMPCS) SITE

In a multi service provider environment now, BSNL has started providing the Mobile services in a big way and number of sites are being commissioned daily for cellular telephone service. For an organization a thorough survey about location of sites, examination of scope of demand and coverage area etc are pre-requisites before provision of such services. The requirement of infrastructure for the sites for speedy installation and efficient functioning of the equipment, has to be assessed properly. This article presents an overview of infrastructure requirement for a cellular IMPCS site.

G. Srinvasa Rao
DGM (Plg), Rajahmundry A.P.
&
P. Ammi Reddy
DE (Plg) Rajahmundry A.P.


OPTICAL NETWORKS

All optical networks based on newer technologies like Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS), tunable lasers, optical switch fabric, wavelength convertors are making telecommunication network highly efficient, scalable and flexible. The bit rate and format transparency allows several different applications like ATM, SDH/SONET and IP etc to run over optical layer. This article presents an overview of optical network technologies and applications.

Neeraj Pandey
Sr. DSTE, Central Railway, Jabalpur
September & October 2002 Issue:

PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE

The use of Information Technology (IT) Tools in on-line transactions increase efficiency, productivity and cost savings. However, the concerns related to security and trust have inhibited the growth in e-commerce, m-governance and a host of other applications. Establishment of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is to be seen both as a business opportunity and a necessity for the growth of various applications. This article presents an overview of PKI.

A.K. Bhargava
General Manager (IT) MTNL Delhi


SSANeT

SSANeT is a Web-based integrated Wide Area Networking Application suitable for implementation in any SSA in BSNL Network. This application integrates Commercial, Fault Reporting Service, Planning & Material Management and Management Information System. Being Web- based, this application offers the advantage of user friendliness. Also being built on platform independent architecture this can be implemented on open source and robust platforms like Linux. The database is built around Oracle database. The source code is open and once the network is established, additional applications can be added on to the platform and also modifications are easy. Being Web-based this offers unique advantage of reduced network maintenance by way of program modification, as the same is required only in the server. It also offers a unique advantage of requirement of only minimum number of user licenses of Oracle. The implementation is hardware and platform independent.

R. Saji Kumar
DGM (Operations) CGMT Kerala Circle


LOCAL MULTIPOINT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS) is a system for broadband wireless transmission direct from antennae to business centres and homes within a line-of-sight radius, providing an economic & quick solution to last mile problem for bringing high-bandwidth services to the customers. Depending on the implementation, LMDS offers a bandwidth of up to 1.5 gbps downstream to users and 200 mbps upstream from the user.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager (Rajpura) Punjab Circle


XML: A REPLACEMENT FOR HTML

Despite the so called 'DOTCOM' bubble busting, the genuine usage of e-activities is one the rise world over. With the arrival of World Wide Web (WWW) and Internet, HTML was the most convenient, fairly efficient and useful language to develop WEB applications with its magical power to link documents. Due to more advanced, more useful and growing e-activity, a need is acutely felt for a better suited language to replace HTML, XML is the answer for this. This article explains the shortcomings of HTML, and presents a comparison of two languages along with features of XML.

Shashi Banzal
Assistant Professor, PMB Gujrati Science College, Indore


MULTI PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING

In many large IP networks, service providers have deployed connection-oriented ATM network cores to optimize bandwidth utilization and increase IP service predictability via ATM traffic engineering and infrastructure resilience. However, the need to manage additional control plants of ATM adds complexity to the network. Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) introduces more predictability and reliability to IP centric networks without the need to manage additional control plane.

Neeraj Pandey
Sr.DSTE, Central Railway, Jabalpur

RF CHANNEL ARCHITECTURE OF GSM

RF (Radio Frequency) channel provide the Radio interfaces between MS (Mobile Stations) and the BTS (Base Transceiver Subsystems) in a typical Mobile channels. This article attempts to highlight the basic anatomy of RF Channels used in GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications).

Amitava Nath
SDE (Lecturer), RTTC Guwahati


July & August 2002 Issue:

THE WIRELESS WORLD

Wireless communication is all around us. It provides the basis of "instant" infrastructure that can be built and placed in service in months rather than years. Flexibility and mobility inherently associated with a wireless medium make it both effective and attractive alternative to wired networks. Wireless networks are now looking for higher bandwidth, greater speeds and lower costs. The future of wireless communications is very bright with a promise of user friendly, new broadband services at a reasonable cost coupled with seamless worldwide roaming capability.

Rajiv Kumar
Area General Manager (Rajpura) Punjab Circle


GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE

The need to cater for the requirement of data transmission over mobile network has been felt for quite some time. A method has been evolved to meet the requirement with minimum investment by simply upgrading the existing Second Generation (2G) GSM mobile network with addition of a few components in the architecture. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) in GSM network, introduced for data transmission, in a midway to migrate to a full scale multimedia service enabled 3G mobile network which is expected to be in operation in near future. This is called now as 2.5G. In this article, an attempt is made to throw some light on the system concepts, radio interface details, configuration and function of logical channels, coding schemes used and new protocols used to achieve a remarkable solution for data transmission over mobile network at a greater speed with the help of GPRS.

A. Ganesan
D.E. OCB TAX, Chennai Telephones


ENHANCED DATA RATE FOR GLOBAL EVOLUTION

Second Generation (2G) mobile operator, using TDMA platform requires a technology which can boost data speed without much additional investment over existing infrastructure. Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution (EDGE) provides a solution for both IS-136 and GSM operators by offering high data speed using high-level modulation scheme in the form of 8-PSK. This article presents an overview of EDGE.


Neeraj Pandey
Sr. DSTE, Central Railway, Jabalpur


MEASURING QUALITY FOR VoIP SERVICES

Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology that enables the carriage of real time traffic (such as voice and video) over a packet network by using the Internet Protocol (IP). Presently, in order to take the advantage of ubiquity of IP-based network and the bandwidth economies. Offered by packet transport, a whole new set of protocols and mechanisms is being utilized to carry real time traffic over such networks. However, the general consensus regarding VoIP seems to suggest that while the technological promise is immense, we have a long way to go before the PSTN QoS can be matched, and, therefore, VoIP is suitable only for local or metropolitan networks. There are a number of issues that need to be tackled before telecommunication grade real time services can be offered by using VoIP. In India, carriage of international voice traffic over managed IP networks has been recently permitted. Soon, there is going to be a rush of players from ISP and telecom worlds to utilize VoIP technology for international telephony service. From a consumer and regulator's stand point it is important to ensure adequate quality of service vis-a-vis the prevailing circuit switched service. Since "what can be measured can be improved" it is important to find means of measuring the QoS offered by the VoIP network. This article proposes a model for the requirements from such a network and parametric measurements of the same.


M.P. Singh
C-DOT, New Delhi


BLUE TOOTH TECHNOLOGY

A person is in a meeting with his notebook computer open in front of him. Suddenly, the cursor begins to blink and a new e-mail message is displayed on the screen. His computer isn't plugged into anything, his cellular phone is in his briefcase under the table, but he is receiving e-mail over the wireless network. How is this possible? His notebook is communicating with his cell phone, which in turn is communicating with the wireless network through a revolutionary new radio chip developed through a collaboration of the Computing and Communications industries called "Bluetooth." This article presents an overview of this new technology revolution.

Dr. Jasvir Singh
Deptt. Of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar


MOBILE SUBSCRIBER NUMBERS & IDENTITIES

Subscriber Numbers & Identities are two important aspects of Mobile communication systems. Some of the key features in this regard are highlighted here with special reference to GSM (Global System for Mobile communications).


Amitava Nath
SDE (Lecturer) RTTC Guwahati


NEW IVRS APPLICATION IN TELECOMMUNICATION

In the present telecommunication scenario, when Private operators have already started carving their niche, the need of the hour is to feel the pulse of the customer and offer him various customized services for improved customer satisfaction. The integration of Computer and Telephone has opened a world of immense possibilities where the service provider has to just use the imagination. This article describes the new IVR application introduced in Kolhapur SSA along with its functional aspects and hardware connectivity.

Sanjeev Verma
DE (DTAX) Kolhapur


May & June 2002 Issue:

QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR INTERNET TELEPHONY

ISPs (Internet Service Providers) have been permitted to provide Internet Telephony from 1st April 2002 with some restrictions. This has created new avenues for the ISPs At the same time it poses many challenges for the service providers. They have to achieve certain Quality of Standard for Internet Telephony. This article deals with some of the parameters, the problem areas and few remedial actions which can be taken for improving the Voice Quality.

Ambrish Agrawal
Ex.General Manager (N), T&D Circle Jabalpur


MC-CDMA FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION

Demand of accessing various multimedia wireless communication services such as high-speed Internet access, video, data and high quality of image transmission by th mobile with enhanced reliability is rapidly growing. In order to satisfy these increasing demands with limited spectrum resources, a number of multicarrier access techniques have been proposed which are presented in this article. MC-CDMA is found to be the most suitable multicarrier access technique and placed in the fourth generation of mobile communication.

Dr. Rajeev Saxena
Professor, Thapar Institute of Engg. & Technology, Patiala
&
Sailash Kumar
JTO (SW), Faridabad


IP TELEPHONY NETWORK

IP telephony is the collection of technologies that emulates and extends today's circuit-switched telecommunications services to operate on packet-switched data networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). The data carried by an IP network can be as simple as transactional queries and responses or as complex as broadband multimedia services. In particular, the technology of IP telephony supports all the functions of voice communications, fax communications, routing, authorization, authentication, accounting, billing and network management that are now provided by the PSTN. In addition, IP Telephony will allow the PSTN to function directly with other networks and products. With set standards, Internet Telephony supplies the framework for integration of computer and voice networks to enable a range of new services, including Virtual Private Networks, Unified Messaging, various pre-paid services and Web-enabled Calls. IP Telephony is flexible enough to provide unlimited new services, allowing it to reach into every corner of the globe.

Atul Sinha
DGM (IT & Marketing), Patna

COMPUTER VIRUSES AND VACCINES

The present day world of Computers and Information Technology is going through an era of electronic terrorism, in the form of Viruses. It is one of the most concerning issues threatening the proper functioning of computer systems in all sectors including Business houses, Government Departments, Banks, Military systems etc, who have already switched to 100% computerized activities and systems for every thing. This article attempts to enter into the world of Viruses and their Vaccines.

Shahi Banzal
Assistant Professor, PMB Gujrati Science College, Indore


March & April 2002 Issue:


SMS-BASED CUSTOMER SERVICE APPLICATIONS

In the present telecommunications scenario, it is necessary to reach out to the customer and offer him many services, however small, as a matter of convenience. SMS is one such platform for the service provider. SMS-based content services are becoming quite popular and service providers need to constantly innovate and offer them as value added services. With growing popularity of SMS, this can also become a useful addition to customer care facilities. There are many ways in which it can be exploited for delivering customer services. This Article deals some of them along with the system description, SMS gateway features and system operation .

A.K. Bhargava
General Manager (IT), MTNL Delhi


DWDM SYSTEM & TESTING

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is a new born multiplexing technology in the fibre optic transmission, bring about a revolution in the bit rate carrying capacity over a single fibre. The components and functions of DWDM systems have unique feature and need unique testing. This Article presents the overview of the DWDM system and highlights its important testing aspects.

H. Saha
DET A/T (Trans), Kolkata

&

N. Anowar
SDE A/T(Trans), Kolkata


RAMAN AMPLIFICATION

Raman Amplification, known since long to scientific community, could not be utilized since 1980s for want of high power pump lasers. Further, its entry was delayed in 1990s, as Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers (EDFAs) became the focus instead. Raman Amplification was resurrected as a viable commercial technology only in 1999. This Article presents an overview of Raman Amplification, in high bandwidth and ultra-long haul networks.

Neeraj Panday
Sr.DSTE Central Railway, Jabalpur


VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK

For major corporate and several other organizations, transporting data in huge volumes has become a daily routine and the communication network is utilized by paying a heavy cost. Virtual Private Network (VPN) comes handy as the same work can be carried out at a lower cost with full security using a public network. Here, Internet is the main transport carrier and packet switching on TCP/IP is exploited by adding a number of advanced mechanisms. Many features of VPN technology, some of the Critical functions that govern VPN such as authentication, access control and encryption/decryption for data security are described in this Article. Different types of architectures and various protocols in use for VPN implementation are also included.

A. Ganesan
DE OCB TAX, Chennai Telephones


DATA CENTERS

Data Centers emerge as a core sector of IT business world. Most of the ISPs (internet Service Providers) and private entrepreneurs concentrate more on these areas. Modern technology and business needs drive the corporate to integrate their applications in a Central location so that the ways and needs of accessing, controlling and maintaining them become easy. This Article focuses mainly on the design, development and maintenance of the Data Centers.

S. Srinivasan
DGM, VSNL Chennai


January & February 2002 Issue:


WEB-BASED DIRECTORY ENQUIRY SYSTEMON LINUX

Many BSNL units have implemented Directory Enquiry Systems on their websites. In this Article, a simple method for developing a powerful Directory Enquiry System is explained using free software tools on Linux, using a relatively unknown RDBMS called MySQL available freely. My SQL is quite powerful for small to medium sized databases applications. Such a Directory Enquiry System is successfully operational at Kolkata Telephones websites. A complete know-how for this system is offered for use in any BSL unit.

Tapas Kumar Sen
General Manager (IT), Kolkata Telephones


ON-LINE CHEQUE DEPOSITORY MACHINE

Subscribers today face a lot of difficulties in making bill payments which hampers revenue collection as well as leads to customer dissatisfaction. It is therefore necessary to introduce new facilities to address such systems. On-line Cheque Depository Machine (CDM) is one such example, which can take care of such customer related problems. This Article deals with the system components, system operation and the security aspects of this machine.

A.K. Bhargava
General Manager (IT), MTNL, New Delhi


OPTICAL FIBRE SYSTEMS

While the advantages of Optical Fibre Cable installed in length and breadth of the country are amazing. It is essential to ensure that these systems are maintained for trouble free and uninterrupted services. In case of any trouble in the system, it should be identified swiftly and rectified immediately with a minimum downtime. To achieve this, it is mandatory that everyone concerned with the maintenance of the OF systems are well informed of various preventive and fault repair activities. This Article is aimed to highlight the important activities for the effective maintenance of Short haul OF systems, for better performance.

P.V. Karunanithi
DGM, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu+


FEATURES OF VOIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an upcoming technology and is likely to benefit the customer by reducing the costs further. It is likely that this technology will be legalized soon. This Article presents an overview of features of VoIP and its implementation.

Ambrish Agrawal
Retired General Manager, T&D Circle, Jabalpur


E-COMMERCE

Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) is the latest buzz-word in the industry. This Article tries to outline the concept of E-Commerce, the main advantages and disadvantages. Various factors that contribute to achieve new dimension in improving the economical efficiency of any business by implementing E-Commerce have been analyzed. Different types of E-commerce available and various models which are suitable to different types of business, with currently existing sites as examples, are listed with brief description. Security related problems in the system due to the unlimited accessibility and the security standards deployed to overcome such deficiencies are also included. The present rate of growth of E-Commerce in the trade is definitely encouraging and is going to change the way the business will be transacted in future.

A. Ganesan
DE OCB TAX, Chennai Telephones


INTERFACE V5.2

The V reference points are ITU-T Recommendations describing configuration of the Access Digital Section. They are all reference points in an architecture where ISDN traffic is carried through an Access Network to Local Exchange. V5.2 is one of the full-fledged interface which can carry both ISDN and PSTN traffic. All the telecom switches available in the market today (EWSD, OCB-283, C-DOT, 5ESS, AXE etc.) are V5.2 compatible, and therefore, access network based on FILL (Fibre in Local Loop) and WLL (Wireless in Local Loop) without having complex switching and advance features can be parented to new technology switches, extending all the features to users transparently.

Ved Prakash Verma
DE(Installation), Kanpur Telephones


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN TELEPHONE NETWORKING

Now-a-days new communication networks are being planned to overcome the huge demand versus supply gap. Alternatively where feasible, an attempt can be made to integrate the available resources together so that they can be utilized to their full capacity. In this Article, the author suggests an idea of integrating various networks together by creating a database, highlighting Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques.

Dr. Rajesh B. Lohani
Professor, Electronics & Telecom, Goa College of Engineering, Ponda, GOA


PAIR GAN SYSTEMS

The Pair gain systems are essentially for multiplying the number of subscriber circuits on conventional copper loops. These systems provide simultaneous transmission of Voice, Data and Signaling between subscribers and exchange using interface technology. This Article presents an overview of these systems.

Ved Prakash Verma
DE(Installation), Kanpur Telephones



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